Love and Hatred of Caffeine. 咖啡因之是非。

Melbourne is called the ‘Coffee Capital City’ of Australia. Globally, Melbourne is one of the cities with a strong coffee culture. In the lead up to 1930s, tea was off the top list as the favourite drink since the introduction of espresso.

墨尔本被称为澳大利亚的“咖啡之都”。在全球范围内,墨尔本是拥有最浓厚咖啡文化的城市之一。在直到20世纪30年代,浓缩咖啡取代了茶,被列为最受澳洲人喜欢的饮品。

If you get a chance to visit Melbourne, take a walk across the cobblestoned laneways, you will be blown away by the aroma of espresso and just can’t help to get one for yourself.

如果你有机会参观墨尔本,一定要穿过鹅卵石巷道逛街散步,你肯定会被浓缩咖啡的香气所吸引,不自觉地也去买一杯。

As a resident in Melbourne, I cannot even tell you how much Melbournians love coffee. We just can’t live without it. It’s epidemic. So be wise and take the control of how much you drink every day in this city that smells like coffee beans.

作为长期居住在墨尔本的一位市民,我还是无法准确得告诉你墨尔本人有多么喜欢咖啡,可以说是生活的“必需品”了吧。 而这个习惯是会传染的,所以在这个飘着咖啡豆香气的城市要明智并且小心控制每天咖啡的饮用量。

Simplified Timeline of Coffee Culture in Melbourne

墨尔本咖啡文化的简化时间轴

*The Windsor Hotel on Spring Street was formerly known as The Grand Coffee Palace and was one of the finest in Melbourne. Picture: Herald Weekly Times Library.

*Street cafe in Melbourne’s Collins Street in 1960. Picture: Herald Weekly Times Library.

 *The deconstructed long macchiato at a Melbourne cafe is part of a long list of hipster coffee inventions. Picture: Ellen Smith.


Summary of Contents 内容大纲:

1. Introduction of Caffeine 介绍一下咖啡因

2. Common Side Effects of Too Much Caffeine 咖啡因过量的常见人体反应

3. ^GRAS Level of Caffeine Intake 咖啡因公认安全的摄取量

4. Story Time! 看个实验吧!

^GRAS: Generally Recognised As Safe

1. What is and Where do we get caffeine from? 咖啡因是什么?咖啡因的来源是什么?

Caffeine is found in most nuts, leaves and seeds of plants in South America and East Asia. It can stimulate our central nervous system and all of us react differently to it.

咖啡因存在于南美洲和东亚大多数植物的坚果,叶子和种子中。 它能刺激我们的中枢神经系统,而且我们每个人对咖啡因都有不同的反应。

Let me ask you a question. Where do we get caffeine from our daily diet?

Coffee! Yes.

Soft drinks! Well, and also energy drinks, so yes!

Chocolates! Surprisingly yes.

Tea! Correct.

让我问你一个问题。 从我们的日常饮食中,哪些是咖啡因的来源?

咖啡! 是的。

软性饮料! 如果加上运动饮料,那就没错了!

巧克力! 有点惊讶,但的确是的。

茶! 正确。

Are they the only sources we can get caffeine from?

Well, apart from these four obvious answers, doctors prescribe caffeine tablets to patients when needed. The ‘No-Doz’ tablets contain 100mg of caffeine per tablet, which is heavily regulated, unlike other caffeine-containing foods or beverages. Other common sources of caffeine are guarana and cardamon. Guaranine is the main form of caffeine found in guarana, each gramme can contain up to 100mg of caffeine.

难道它们是咖啡因的唯一几个来源吗?

除了这四个众所周知的答案,在需要的时候,医生会给病人开咖啡因片。 “No-Doz”片剂每片含有100毫克的咖啡因,与其他含咖啡因的食物或饮料不同,药品类是受到政府机构严格管制的,相对会比较安全。 咖啡因的其他常见来源是瓜拉那和小豆蔻。 瓜拉丁是在瓜拉那中发现的咖啡因的主要形式,每克瓜拉丁含有高达100毫克的咖啡因。

Chemical Structure of Caffeine

2. What do I experience if I overdose on caffeine? 如果过量服用咖啡因,会有什么感觉吗?

You may notice or hear about people reacting differently to caffeine. In fact, the reactions are so different. Some may feel nothing after drinking 2 cups of long black, however, some may experience discomfort after even 1 cup of latte.

您可能会注意到或听到不同人对咖啡因有不同的反应。 事实上,不同个体对咖啡因的反应可以相差好远。有些人在喝了2杯美式咖啡后,可能完全感觉不到任何不适,但是有些人即使喝完1杯拿铁,也有可能会感到不适。

Some common side effects of overdosing on caffeine, include insomnia, elevated heart rate, muscle tremors, nervousness, restlessness, frequent urination, irritability, etc.

咖啡因过量的一些常见副作用包括失眠、心率提高、肌肉震颤、紧张、坐立不安、尿频、烦躁等。

3. How much caffeine is too much of it? How much is considered as safe? 多少的咖啡因才算多呢? 多少量是属于安全范围内的呢?

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The authorities (i.e. FDA, EFSA, Victorian Government, NSW [New South Wales] Government) around the world suggested a safe level of caffeine intake of 400mg per day [3-5]. The FSANZ [Food Standards Australia New Zealand] Expert Working Group identified a caffeine level of more than 210mg per day could induce anxiety in adults [6]. If we compare with the available data in the US, Australia set a higher caffeine restriction due to the recognised safety issues.

世界各地的当局 (即 FDA食品和药物管理局、EFSA欧洲食品安全监管局、VIC维多利亚州政府、NSW新南威尔士州政府) 建议每天摄取咖啡因的安全范围为400毫克 [3-5]。 FSANZ [澳大利亚新西兰食品标准局] 专家工作组发现,每天摄取210毫克以上的咖啡因,就会有可能引起成年人的焦虑 [6]。 如果和美国的现有数据比较,由于公认的安全问题,澳大利亚设定了更加严格的咖啡因限制。

Table 1 displayed the amounts of caffeine in various caffeinated food and beverages. What do 210mg and 400mg look like, you may ask?

A medium/regular cup (390mL) of cappuccino (or latte or mocha) can give you 208mg of caffeine. If you take another small cup (280mL) of long black, which gives you 403mg (208mg+195mg) of caffeine already. It is easy to go over the recommended caffeine level by FDA, isn’t it?

表格 1 显示了各种含咖啡因食品和饮料中到底有多少的咖啡因。 你也许还会问,210毫克和400毫克的咖啡因到底是多少呢?

中等/普通杯 (390毫升) 的卡布奇诺 (或拿铁或摩卡) 就已经含有208毫克的咖啡因。 如果你再多喝另一小杯 (280mL) 的美式咖啡,那么就有403毫克 (208毫克 + 195毫克) 的咖啡因了。其实很容易就超过FDA所建议的咖啡因摄取量的。

The FDA [Food & Drug Administration] also reported that our manufacturers have been adding caffeine, for its stimulating effects, in numerous food products which are commonly consumed [7]. So like the sugar and salt, now there is hidden caffeine in our foods.

FDA [食品和药物管理局] 还报告说,我们的食品制造商已经开始在许多受欢迎的食品中加入咖啡因 [7]。 因此,就像糖和盐一样,现在我们的食物里还偷偷地“藏”有咖啡因。

4. Let’s have a look at this experiment, of a typical work day in Melbourne, a city ‘driven’ by coffee/caffeine 我们来看看这个故事,在这个飘着咖啡香气的墨尔本,一个典型的工作日是如何的呢?

To clarify, in the following Table 2 and Table 3, the caffeine levels were calculated with the identified half-life of caffeine in human body systems to be 4-6 hours [8]. The starting caffeine level (214mg) was taken from the mean value of the caffeine content (156-272mg) in a medium/regular cup (390mL) of long black from Table 1.

澄清一下,在以下表格 2表格 3中,咖啡因含量是以咖啡因在人体系统中的为期4-6小时的半衰期来计算 [8]。 咖啡因的起始水平 (214毫克) 取自表格 1中 一杯中等/正常杯 (390毫升) 的美式咖啡中咖啡因含量 (156-272毫克) 的平均值。

Table 2 shows how fast caffeine gets metabolised by the system when you have a cup of medium/regular cup (390mL) of long black at 6 in the morning. Surprisingly, there is still 14mg of caffeine left to be evacuated from your system at 10 P.M.

表格 2显示了当您在早晨6点时喝一杯中等/普通杯 (390毫升) 的美式咖啡时,咖啡因是如何被人体代谢的。 令人惊讶的是,即使到了晚上10点,人体系统中还残留14毫克的咖啡因。

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How is it like for a Melbournian who work full days? Here comes the story.

对于一整天工作的墨尔本上班族来说,故事又会是怎么样的呢?

It’s a typical work day for you, you get up and have one long black at 6 in the morning, as usual. You are all energised now and commute to work. Then you receive an email, inviting you to report your work progress to the whole department. So you go for a cup of mocha during the morning tea break, before the meeting. Now you are good to go. The meeting goes well and you enjoy a lovely lunch with your colleagues in the sun. When you come back from your lunch, you grab a nice and warm cup of black tea to avoid ‘food coma*’. You make it through the day and get your work done well. Later your calendar on your phone reminds you of a baseball match you promised your attendance to your nephew. It has been a long work day, thus you gulp down a can of Red Bull to refresh your mind. When you get home and prepare yourself for bed, have a look at the Table 3 below, there is still 86mg of caffeine left in your system at 10 P.M.

这是一个普通不过的工作日,你起床后,在早上6点喝了一杯美式咖啡,一切就像往常一样。 你现在充满活力,出门去上班。一会后您收到一封电子邮件,邀请您将工作进度报告给整个部门。 所以你在会议开始之前,趁着上午茶歇时,又喝了一杯摩卡。 现在你精神抖擞。会议进行得很顺利,你和你的同事在阳光下享受着午餐。 当你午饭后回到办公室,你又泡了一杯温暖的红茶,以避免“午后犯困”。 就这样,一天的工作效率也高。 下班前你手机上的日历提醒你,今晚有一个你侄子的棒球比赛,你答应了你会出席的。 今天本身就是一个漫长的工作日了,所以你就又喝下一罐红牛来清醒清醒头脑。当一切结束后,你回到家准备睡觉时,我们看看下面的表格 3,夜晚10点钟,你的体内竟然还剩下86毫克的咖啡因。

Are you surprised? 有吓一跳吗?

Yes, you may not feel the caffeine in your body by then. But the statistics are there. The 86mg of caffeine is almost how much a can of energy drinks (Red Bull or V) provides, according to Table 1. Imagine you drink a can of energy drink before bedtime, do you think it disturbs your sleep?

是的,可能你那时根本感觉不到身体里的咖啡因起着任何作用。 但根据数据来看,的确是存在的。根据表格 1,86毫克的咖啡因几乎等同于一罐能量饮料(红牛或V)。想象一下,你睡觉之前喝一罐能量饮料,你觉得你当天还能睡得好吗?

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You can simply test yourself on how much caffeine you can tolerate every day, without experiencing any discomfort. We aim to drink for pleasure, not unwanted symptoms.

Leave a comment with your questions or how creative you monitor your caffeine intakes.

其实你可以简单得测试自己每天能忍受多少咖啡因。 我们本来就是为了愉悦才喝咖啡的,在没有任何不舒服的症状的情况下。

欢迎你留下任何评论,也可以是任何问题,或关于你会怎么控制你的咖啡因摄入的。

Kath: “I gotta go, my coffee is done. Talk to you later.”

Kath 凯瑟琳:“好了 我得走了,我的咖啡刚煮好了。下回见。”

References 参考文献:

1. Food Standards Australian New Zealand; available from: http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/generalissues/Pages/Caffeine.aspx

2. USDA; available from: https://www.usda.gov

3. Energy drinks and caffeine; NSW Government Department of Health; available from: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/mentalhealth/Factsheets/Factsheets/energy-drinks-and-caffeine.pdf

4. Scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine, EFSA panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies (NDA); European Food Safety Authority; available from: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/consultation/150115.pdf

5. Caffeine; Better Health Channel; Victorian State Government Department of Health; available from: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/caffeine

6. Caffeine; Food Standards Australia New Zealand; available from: http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/generalissues/Pages/Caffeine.aspx

7. Consumer Updates – FDA to investigate added caffeine; US Food & Drug Administration; available from: https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm350570.htm

8. Pharmacology of caffeine; Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations; available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223808/

Thanks to Pinterest and cited sites for the photographs.

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